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Botulinums

Botulinums Toxin

Botulinums Toxin.

Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis. Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism. The toxin is also used commercially for medical and cosmetic purposes.

Botulinums Toxin injection

There are seven main types of botulinum toxin, named type A–G. New types are occasionally found. Types A and B are capable of causing disease in humans, and are also used commercially and medically. Types C–G are less common; types E and F can cause disease in humans, while the other types cause disease in other animals. Botulinum toxin types A and B are used in medicine to treat various muscle spasms.

Botulinum toxin is the most poisonous substance known. Intoxication can occur naturally as a result of either wound or intestinal infection or by ingesting preformed toxin in food. The estimated human lethal dose of type A toxin is 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly, 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled, or 1000 ng/kg when taken by mouth. Commercial forms are marketed under the brand names Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA), Dysport/Azzalure (abobotulinumtoxinA), Xeomin/Bocouture (incobotulinumtoxinA), and Jeuveau (prabotulinumtoxinA).

Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, including cerebral palsy, post-stroke spasticity, post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck,eyelid,vagina,limbs, jaw, and vocal cords. Similarly, botulinum toxin is used to relax the clenching of muscles, including those of the oesophagus, jaw,ower urinary tract and bladder,or clenching of the anus which can exacerbate anal fissure. Botulinum toxin appears to be effective for refractory overactive bladder.

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